Chair of Electromagnetic Theory

Bidirectional Electrical Power Transfer via Inductive Charging Stations: Fundamentals of Design Strategies, Simulation-Based Shielding Optimization, and Electromagnetic Environmental Compatibility Studies.

Project leader
Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Markus Clemens
(Chair of Electromagnetic Theory)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Benedikt Schmuelling
(Chair of Electric Mobility and Energy Storage Systems)

Project manager
Dr. rer. nat. Norman Haußmann
Martin Zang, M.Sc.

Project duration
2017 - 2019

electrical power engineering, inductive charging, electromagnetic theory, scientific computing, numerics of electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic field dosimetry

Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under grant number CL143/14-1

Project description

Inductive charging systems for transmitting high electrical power are intended to simplify and accelerate the charging process of electrically powered vehicles and are already being tested at the prototype stage. However, other concepts in which electric and hybrid electric vehicles are also intended to serve as energy storage for the connected energy grid are not currently being considered since the technical feasibility of the bidirectional inductive charging technology required for this is currently insufficient.

The aim of this research project is to investigate the engineering fundamentals of bidirectional inductive charging stations under consideration of their future usability and technical performance. The research work also includes simulation-based preliminary investigations of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with respect to the electronic systems as well as environmental compatibility (EMEC) for persons inside and in the vicinity of the vehicle. These properties are dependent on the effectiveness of magnetic field attenuation provided by shielding systems, which must be considered to comply with existing limits. Particular technical difficulties arise in these with bidirectional transmission systems due to the high power flux densities of the alternating magnetic fields combined with low electrical conductivities of lightweight materials used for modern electric vehicle bodies.

In this research project, the fundamentals for suitable configurations of such bidirectional inductive charging systems are to be determined using laboratory-based and computer-aided simulations. In addition, suitable shielding systems and the efficiency of various shielding materials are to be investigated using suitable high-resolution numerical field simulation schemes, which are to be further developed, and the establishment of a measuring simulation environment for these shielding structures. Numerical field simulation methods play an important role in the design and optimization of these systems. In this research project, these essentiel methods will be extended in order to take into account the transformer geometries and the influence of magnetic shields in realistic EMEC field simulations with high-resolution human models more precisely than before. This will allow a computer-aided optimization of these systems with respect to material usage and weight minimization. The scientific challenge of this research project lies in the multiscale nature of these three-dimensional field assemblies. Due to weight reasons, these very thin and light shielding structures with partly complex three-dimensional geometries have to be considered in spatially extended complex environmental geometries (e.g. in vehicles), in which high-resolution spatial human body models are positioned for electromagnetic field dosimetry.

Project-related publications

M. Alsayegh, M. Saifo, M. Clemens and B. Schmuelling, "Magnetic and Thermal Coupled Field Analysis of Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Vehicles", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 55, no. 6, June 2019, Jun. 2019.
M. Alsayegh, M. Clemens and B. Schmuelling, "Control Signaling in Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles through Ultra-Wideband", 14th International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER 2019), Monaco, 08.-10.04.2019. Two page short paper submitted, Nov. 2018.
M. Clemens, M. Zang, M. Alsayegh and B. Schmuelling, "High Resolution Modeling of Magnetic Field Exposure Scenarios in the Vicinity of Inductive Wireless Power Transfer Systems", Invited paper. Intermag 2018, 23.-27.04.2018, Singapore, Malaysia. Abstract., Apr. 2018.
M. Clemens, M. Zang, C. Cimala, J. Dutiné, J. Streckert, T. Timm and B. Schmuelling, "Simulation der Exposition des menschlichen Körpers durch magneto-quasistatische Felder von induktiven Ladesystemen in Automobilen", Internationale Fachmesse und Kongress für Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV 2018), Düsseldorf, 20.-22.02.2008, Germany. Tagungsband, pp. 295 – 303, Feb. 2018.
M. Zang, M. Clemens, C. Cimala, J. Streckert and B. Schmuelling, "Simulation of Inductive Power Transfer Systems Exposing a Human Body with a Coupled Scaled-Frequency Approach", Presented at: 17th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC 2016), Miami, USA, 13.-16.11.2016, vol. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 53, No. 6, June 2017., Jun. 2017.
C. Cimala, M. Clemens, J. Streckert and B. Schmuelling, "High-Resolution Magnetic Field Exposure Simulations of Automotive Inductive Power Transfer Systems Using a Scaled Frequency FDTD Approach with Multi-GPU Acceleration", International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. e2231, 02 2017. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
M. Zang, C. Cimala, M. Clemens, J. Dutiné and B. Schmuelling, "A Co-Simulation Scalar-Potential Finite Difference (SPFD) Approach for the Simulation of Human Exposure to Magneto-Quasistatic Fields", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 53, no. 6, 01 2017. IEEE.
M. Zang, C. Cimala, M. Clemens and B. Schmuelling, "Comparison of Two Novel Approaches for the Simulation of Magneto-Quasistatic Human Exposure", 17th International IGTE Symposium on Numerical Field Calculation in Electrical Engineering (IGTE 2016) , Graz, Austria, 18.-21.09.2016. Book of Abstracts, p. 56., Sep. 2016.
C. Cimala, M. Zang, M. Clemens, J. Feng, B. Schmuelling and J. Streckert, "Numerical Schemes for High-Resolution Dosimetry Simulations of Automotive Low Frequency Inductive Power Transfer Systems", International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications & IEEE-APS Topical Conference on Antennas and Propagation in Wireless Communications (ICEAA IEEE-APS 2015), Turin, Italy, 07.-11.09.2015. Full paper, Sep. 2015.

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